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Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Chi-Keung Leung Director, Hong Kong Institute of Education, — Former Editor, Asian Geographer.
Author of China: Railway Patterns and National Goals. See Article History. Alternative Titles: Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Hsiang-kang, Xianggang Tebie Xingzhengqu.
Britannica Quiz. Exploring China: Fact or Fiction? Gallup International Association. United States Department of State, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
The Watchtower. ASHK Education Committee, Hospital Authority, Hong Kong. Health Authority, Hong Kong. Department of Health, Hong Kong.
Government of Hong Kong. Health Care Voucher. Index of Economic Freedom. Goverment of Hong Kong, How to Invest in Offshore Real Estate and Pay Little Or No Taxes angol nyelven.
McGraw-Hill Professional, Contemporary China: The Dynamics of Change at the Start of the New Millennium angol nyelven.
Psychology Press, 80— Moving Millions: The Commercial Success and Political Controversies of Hong Kong's Railways angol nyelven.
City of London, World Federation of Exchanges. Hong Kong Monetary Authority, Census and Statistics Department, Hongkong, Transport Department, Hong Kong Government.
International Associacion of Public Transport. Advanced Modeling for Transit Operations and Service Planning angol nyelven. Emerald Group Publishing, Octopus Cards Limited.
Electronic Markets 11 2 , 97— DOI : Mass Transit Railway. The Making of Hong Kong: From Vertical to Volumetric angol nyelven.
Fields from the sea: Chinese junk trade with Siam during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries angol nyelven. SEAP Publications, Holng Kong Port Development Council.
Illustrations of China and Its People angol nyelven. Wikimedia Commons har flere filer relateret til Hongkong.
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International Journal of Bank Marketing. Boggs, Lindy 13 March —27 July When Elliot promised that the British government would pay for their opium stock, the merchants surrendered their 20, chests of opium, which were destroyed in public.
In September , the British Cabinet decided that the Chinese should be made to pay for the destruction of British property, either by the threat or use of force.
An expeditionary force was placed under Elliot and his cousin, Rear-Admiral George Elliot , as joint plenipotentiaries in Foreign Secretary Lord Palmerston stressed to the Chinese government that the British government did not question China's right to prohibit opium, but it objected to the way this was handled.
He instructed the Elliot cousins to occupy one of the Chusan Islands in the Hangzhou Bay delta across from Shanghai , then to present a letter from himself to a Chinese official for the Emperor , then to proceed to the Gulf of Bohai for a treaty, and if the Chinese resisted, then to blockade the key ports of the Yangtze and Yellow rivers.
In , Elliot negotiated with Lin's successor, Qishan , in the Convention of Chuenpi during the First Opium War. On 20 January, Elliot announced "the conclusion of preliminary arrangements", which included the cession of the then-barren Hong Kong Island and its harbour to the British Crown.
The treaty failed to satisfy British expectations of a major expansion of trade and profit, which led to increasing pressure for a revision of the terms.
The Consul in Canton, Harry Parkes , claimed the hauling down of the flag and arrest of the crew were "an insult of very grave character".
Parkes and Sir John Bowring , the 4th Governor of Hong Kong , seized the incident to pursue a forward policy. In March , Palmerston appointed Lord Elgin as Plenipotentiary with the aim of securing a new and satisfactory treaty.
A French expeditionary force joined the British to avenge the execution of a French missionary in In the Treaty of Tientsin, the Chinese accepted British demands to open more ports, navigate the Yangtze River, legalise the opium trade and have diplomatic representation in Beijing.
During the conflict, the British occupied the Kowloon Peninsula , where the flat land was valuable training and resting ground. The area in what is now south of Boundary Street and Stonecutters Island was ceded in the Convention of Peking.
In , the British sought to extend Hong Kong for defence. After negotiations began in April , with the British Minister in Beijing, Sir Claude MacDonald , representing Britain, and diplomat Li Hongzhang leading the Chinese, the Second Convention of Peking was signed on 9 June.
Since the foreign powers had agreed by the late 19th century that it was no longer permissible to acquire outright sovereignty over any parcel of Chinese territory, and in keeping with the other territorial cessions China made to Russia , Germany and France that same year, the extension of Hong Kong took the form of a year lease.
The lease consisted of the rest of Kowloon south of the Sham Chun River and islands, which became known as the New Territories.
The British formally took possession on 16 April In , during the Second World War, the British reached an agreement with the Chinese government under Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek that if Japan attacked Hong Kong, the Chinese National Army would attack the Japanese from the rear to relieve pressure on the British garrison.
On 8 December, the Battle of Hong Kong began when Japanese air bombers effectively destroyed British air power in one attack.
The British commander, Major-General Christopher Maltby , concluded that the island could not be defended for long unless he withdrew his brigade from the mainland.
On 18 December, the Japanese crossed Victoria Harbour. Maltby recommended a surrender to Governor Sir Mark Young , who accepted his advice to reduce further losses.
A day after the invasion, Chiang ordered three corps under General Yu Hanmou to march towards Hong Kong. The plan was to launch a New Year's Day attack on the Japanese in the Canton region, but before the Chinese infantry could attack, the Japanese had broken Hong Kong's defences.
The British casualties were 2, killed or missing and 2, wounded. The Japanese reported 1, killed and 6, wounded. The Japanese soldiers committed atrocities, including rape, on many locals.
The Japanese imprisoned the ruling British colonial elite and sought to win over the local merchant gentry by appointments to advisory councils and neighbourhood watch groups.
The policy worked well for Japan and produced extensive collaboration from both the elite and the middle class, with far less terror than in other Chinese cities.
Hong Kong was transformed into a Japanese colony, with Japanese businesses replacing the British. However, the Japanese Empire had severe logistical difficulties and by the food supply for Hong Kong was problematic.
The overlords became more brutal and corrupt, and the Chinese gentry became disenchanted. With the surrender of Japan, the transition back to British rule was smooth, for on the mainland the Nationalist and Communist forces were preparing for a civil war and ignored Hong Kong.
Bloomberg, preuzeto Hong Kong Trade Development Council, preuzeto Hong Kong Democratic Foundation, preuzeto Mercer, preuzeto World Bank , preuzeto Hong Kong Government October , preuzeto 4.
If I am a lawful resident of Hong Kong, can my family members in the Mainland or elsewhere apply to immigrate to Hong Kong? Community Legal Information Centre, preuzeto 4.
Application of International Labour Standards I , International Labour Organization pristupljeno Hong Kong as a Cantonese speaking city.
Journalism and Media Studies Centre, University of Hong Kong, preuzeto University College London, preuzeto 1. United States Department of State , preuzeto The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, preuzeto The Watchtower, preuzeto 9.
United States Department of State , preuzeto 6. Hong Kong Has Highest Income Disparity in Asia, UN Report Says. Education Bureau, Hong Kong Government, preuzeto 4.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , preuzeto Education Bureau, Hong Kong Government, preuzeto 1.
Arhivirano s izvorne stranice 3. Quacquarelli Symonds, preuzeto Quacquarelli Symonds , preuzeto Commerce and Economic Development Bureau, Hong Kong Government, preuzeto 4.Guangxi Inner Mongolia Ningxia Tibet Xinjiang. Wikimedia Commons Wikibooks Wikinews Wikiquote Wikisource Wikivoyage. Davis, Sir John Francis By the early s, Hong Kong had established itself as a global financial Pixel Perfect and shipping hub.